Control y Regulación de las Empresas de Seguridad Privada en América Latina y el Caribe: un análisis comparativo

Autor:Francesca Caonero - William Godnick -Sonia Fernández - Julián Bustamante - Samanta Natenzon
Páginas:175-241
 
EXTRACTO GRATUITO
Control y Regulación
de las Empresas de
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comparativo
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Samanta Natenzon
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marcos legales para regular adecuadamente el fenómeno de la
privatización de la seguridad. Entre estas iniciativas se puede
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un marco universal en el que se regulen estas empresas.
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con las diferentes normativas nacionales existentes. El objetivo de
este estudio es identificar sí los Estados cumplen ya con algunas
provisiones de este proyecto y de qué manera.
Con base en el estudio de las leyes nacionales sobre seguridad
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las diferentes provisiones de este documento sobre las que las
diferentes normativas nacionales de varios países de América
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Como resultado de este contraste jurídico se puede observar que
algunos Estados de la región recogen en su orden legal aspectos
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estipulan disposiciones muy específicas en la materia que pueden
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que respecta al control y a la regulación de empresas de seguridad
privada.
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Mercenario; Seguridad pública; Seguridad privada; Armas de
fuego; Servicios de patrullas; guardaespaldas; logística a valores
y vigilancia
States and different international players have drafted legal frameworks
to adequately regulate the phenomenon of privatization of security.
Among these initiatives is the Project for a Possible Convention on
Private Military and Security Companies, prepared with guidance
from the United Nations Human Rights Council. The objective of this
proposed convention is to provide a universal framework to regulate
these companies.
The United Nations Regional Center for Peace, Disarmament and
Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC) has
studied this Proposed Convention and contrasted it with existing
national regulations. The objective of this study is to identify whether
and how States already comply with some of the provisions contained
in this proposal.
Based on the study of national private security law, UNLIREC has
contrasted it with the Convention Proposal identifying the different items
in this document that are referred to in the different national regulations
from various countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.
As a result of this legal contrast, it can be observed that laws in some
States in the region include significant legal aspects put forth in the
Proposed Convention, such as licenses, registry and training. Other
States go beyond that, stipulating specific regulations that can be
noted. Others, on the contrary, lack any provisions regarding control and
regulation of private security providers.
Key Words: Privatization of Security, private security guards, private
security companies, Possible Convention on Private Military and Private
Security Companies (PMCs), Private Investigations, Mercenary, Public
Security, Private Security, Firearms, Surveillance services, body guards,
logistics and surveillance of valuables
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Bustamante y Samanta Natenzon
Acrónimos
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de Bolivia
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ONUDDc(SQ%/%+' de las J'/%:+!8(K+%&'8 contra la Droga y el Delito
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sus aspectos
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de Desarme con el propósito de dar a conocer y contextualizar el fenómeno de la expansión
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respuestas jurídicas encaminadas a afrontar este fenómeno se basa en un contraste entre
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legislaciones nacionales vigentes. No obstante, el objetivo principal es reflexionar sobre las
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privada dentro del Estado de Derecho. Asimismo, el artículo llama la atención sobre las
implicancias de esta actividad de índole privada para la esfera de la se guridad pública.
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Introducción
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como el crimen organizado, el tráfico de drogas, armas y personas y
la proliferación de diversas expresiones de la violencia juvenil como las
pandillas, se posiciona cada vez más como un asunto prioritario en la agenda
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en la capacidad de muchos Estados de la región para proporcionar el
bien público de la seguridad física de las personas y sus bienes ha tenido
como consecuencia el aumento de la presencia de empresas que prestan
servicios de seguridad privada, muchas veces con agentes armados. Sin
embargo, este hecho no ha conducido necesariamente a mejores niveles
de seguridad.
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sectores piden recuperar el monopolio del uso de la fuerza coercitiva por
parte del Estado y otros buscan promover sistemas mixtos público-privados
en la provisión de la seguridad. Independientemente de las posiciones
particulares es claro que el crecimiento de la industria del sector privado no
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que las empresas que prestan servicios de seguridad, en particular las que
hacen uso de las armas de fuego en el ejercicio de sus labores, lo hagan
dentro del Estado de Derecho.
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empresas militares y de seguridad privadas en contextos de conflicto
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luego, dichas iniciativas apuntan en una dirección positiva pero no enfrentan
integralmente la problemática de la privatización de la seguridad que se
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en este informe, la naturaleza de las empresas de seguridad privada en
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of a posible Conventionon Private Military and Security Companies(!+( %+"3.8P(
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diferentes iniciativas internacionales encaminadas a afrontar el fenómeno
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prescripciones del proyecto de una posible Convención sobre las Empresas
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